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To Skandinavia on the "Ships starting with S" page.
Manager: The Texas Company (Norway) A/S, Oslo. This company was controlled by The Texas Co., US, and its ships managed by Haakon Chr. Mathiesen, Oslo.
Delivered in Dec.-1939 from Deutsche Werft A/G, Hamburg.
Captain: Karl Arthur Olsen.
Related items on this website:
Please compare the above voyages with Arnold Hague's Voyage Record below.
(Received from Don Kindell - His source: The late Arnold Hague's database).
Follow the convoy links provided for more information on each.
Her 1940 voyages are listed on Page 1 of the archive documents. As can be seen, she was on her way from Santos to Port Arthur when war broke out in Norway on Apr. 9-1940. It'll also be noticed, that she had quite a long stay in Port Arthur that fall. Her 1941 voyages also start on this document, while the rest can be found on Page 2, which shows that she spent a long time in New York that year. She had arrived there from Halifax on Sept. 16 and departure is given as Nov. 18, at which time she returned to Halifax in order to join Convoy HX 162 on Nov. 27, together with the Norwegian Astrell, Brant County, Katy, Bello, Sama, Beth (returned) and Høegh Scout. Norvinn (Panamanian flag, Norwegian managers and, therefore, included on this website) was also scheduled to be in this convoy but did not sail. Skandinavia arrived Belfast Lough on Dec. 8/9, proceeding to Avonmouth a couple of days later, arriving Dec. 13. She subsequently returned with the westbound North Atlantic Convoy ON 50*, which originated in Liverpool on Christmas Eve and dispersed on Jan. 3-1942. Skandinavia sailed from Milford Haven on Dec. 23, stopping at Belfast Lough the next day; her destination is given as New York, where she arrived on Jan. 7-1942. The Norwegian Charles Racine, Fagerfjell, Fernwood, Fjordheim (returned), Høegh Giant, Innerøy, Sama, Strinda and Taborfjell are also listed.
She headed back to the U.K. on Jan. 20-1942 with Convoy HX 171 from Halifax, for which Acanthus and Rose served as escorts for a while. Skandinavia arrived Avonmouth, via Belfast Lough and Barry Roads, on Febr. 4, later joining the westbound Convoy ON 67*, in which the Norwegian Eidanger, Finnanger and Sama and others were sunk - follow the links for details. This convoy, which also included Belinda, Glittre, Hamlet, Idefjord, Nueva Andalucia, Strinda and Thorhild, started out in Liverpool on Febr. 14 and arrived Halifax on March 1; Skandinavia, however, was bound for Aruba on that occasion, arriving there on March 7, having been detached from the convoy on Febr. 26, according to A. Hague. From Page 2, we learn that she had sailed from Milford Haven on Febr. 13, stopping at Belfast Lough the next day, before continuing on the 15th. On March 21, we find her in Convoy HX 181 from Halifax. Acanthus is again named among the escorts, as are Eglantine and Potentilla. Skandinavia arrived Swansea, via Belfast Lough, on Apr. 5, and later that month she's listed in the westbound Convoy ON 87* (originated in Liverpool Apr. 16, dispersed Apr. 26), together with Atlantic, Albert L. Ellsworth, Bralanta, Glittre, Havprins, Herbrand, Katy, Norheim, Norsol, Polartank, Stiklestad and Vav. Skandinavia's destination is given as Port Arthur, station 43, but according to the archive document mentioned above, she arrived Curacao on May 4, having sailed from Milford Haven Apr. 15, Belfast Lough Apr. 16. From Curacao, she proceeded to Freetown a few days later.
She was scheduled for Convoy SL 110 from Freetown on May 13-1942 (ref. external link at the end of this page - as can be seen when going back to Page 2, she did not arrive Freetown from Curacao until May 21), but instead joined the next convoy on May 24, SL 111/SLF 111. Skandinavia, cargo of gasolene, was in the fast section of the convoy (SLF) which detached on June 8 and arrived Liverpool on the 13th (Skandinavia arrived Stanlow June 14), while the slow section arrived on June 16. Other Norwegian ships taking part were Havkong, Petter II, Sandanger and Solsten - see the links provided within the Voyage Record. A few days later she joined the westbound North Atlantic Convoy ON 105*, departing Liverpool on June 19, arriving Halifax on the 30th; Skandinavia, in station 73, is said to have been bound for Boston, but according to Page 3, she arrived New York on July 4; Boston is not mentioned. Marit II, Norsol, Polarsol, Sandanger and Velma are also named.
Having proceeded from New York to Hampton Roads and on to Key West (Convoy KS 523, together with Marathon, Norheim, Tercero and Thorshov) she now shows up in a Key West-Trinidad convoy, namely WAT 11 (from Key West Aug. 1-1942, to Trinidad Aug. 10), returning with Convoy TAW 14 (from Trinidad Aug. 16, to Key West Aug. 25) - again, see the external links in the Voyage Record. Kaia Knudsen, Marathon, Tercero and Tropic Star are also listed in WAT 11, while Besholt, Brand, Fernglen, Kaia Knudsen and Trondanger are included in TAW 14. From Key West, Skandinavia now returned to New York (listed in Convoy KN 134, with Besholt, Braganza, Fernglen, Kaia Knudsen and Trondanger), then proceeded to Halifax in order to join Convoy HX 206 from there on Sept. 6, cargo of gasolene for Belfast, station 93. She arrived Belfast Lough on Sept. 17, then continued to Avonmouth, where she arrived Sept. 20 (Page 3). Just a few days later, we find her in the westbound Convoy ON 133*, which originated in Liverpool Sept. 25 and arrived New York Oct. 11; Skandinavia had sailed from Milford Haven Sept. 24, from Belfast Lough Sept. 25. She had again been in the company of several other Norwegian ships, namely Anna Knudsen, Athos, Bello, Brimanger, Emma Bakke, Garonne, Grey County, Kosmos II, Minerva, Molda, Noreg, Nueva Granada, Petter II (returned), Polarsol, Polartank, Sandanger, Thorshavet, Thorshov and the Panamanian Norbris (Norwegian managers).
Wasting no time after arrival New York, she subsequently joined Convoy NG 314, departing New York on Oct. 15, arriving Guantanamo on the 22nd, and Rick Pitz, a visitor to my website, has informed me via this message in my Guestbook that she was in Convoy GAT 16, which left Guantanamo Bay for Trinidad that same day (Oct. 22) with 24 ships, among them several Norwegian (Thorshavet, Britamsea, Alar, Thorshov, Sandanger, Anna Knudsen). Skandinavia's destination is given as Puerto Cabello; going back to Page 3, we learn that she arrived Curacao on Oct. 25 (see also the external links to A. Hague's listing for these convoys in the Voyage Record, where Norbris is also included in GAT 16, in additon to those mentioned in the Guestbook message, and all of them are also named in NG 314). She subsequently went in the other direction with Convoy TAG 17, which arrived Guantanamo on Nov. 3, then continued to New York that same day with Convoy GN 17, arriving New York Nov. 10. Brønnøy, Dagrun, Sandanger, Thorshov and Vav are also listed in the latter 2 convoys. Skandinavia left New York again already the next day, joining Convoy HX 215. Her destination is given as Avonmouth, where she arrived, via Belfast Lough, on Nov. 27, returning to the U.S. with Convoy ON 151*, which sailed from Liverpool on Dec. 3-1942 and arrived New York on the 23rd - Skandinavia, however, started out from Milford Haven on Dec. 2, and via Belfast Lough Dec.3/Dec. 5, she arrived Beaumont on Dec. 28, Port Arthur the next day; according to A. Hague, she had been detached from the convoy on the 13th. Thorshov had again been in company, as had Atlantic, Brasil, Brimanger, Gefion, Geisha (Commodore Vessel), Kaia Knudsen, Molda and Stigstad.
Having made another voyage to Key West and back to New York (convoy info in Voyage Record), she now joined Convoy HX 224 on Jan. 22-1943, bound for Stanlow, where she arrived Febr. 7/8, having parted company with the convoy on Febr. 4 according to the Commodore's notes, subsequently returning to New York with Convoy ON 166, in which the Norwegian Stigstad, Ingria, N. T. Nielsen-Alonso, Glittre and several others were sunk - follow the links for more details. Other Norwegian ships in this convoy were Molda, Tai Shan, Tropic Star and Brasil. The convoy arrived New York on March 3, and Skandinavia remained there for almost a month before heading back to the U.K. - see Page 4. According to Arnold Hague, this voyage was made in Convoy HX 232*, which left New York on Apr. 1 and arrived Liverpool on the 16th; Skandinavia stopped at Belfast Lough that day, before continuing to Avonmouth, with arrival Apr. 17/18. The Norwegian Belinda, California Express, Heranger, Ørnefjell, Thorhild, Thorshøvdi, Tigre and Tungsha are also included in this convoy, which lost 4 ships (ref. external link at the end of this page). Together with Belinda, California Express, Norsktank, Norsol, Reinholt (Commodore Vessel), Skjelbred, Thorhild and Velma, she now joined the westbound Convoy ON 180* a few days later (departure Liverpool Apr. 24, arrival New York May 14 - Skandinavia had sailed from Milford Haven Apr. 23).
She left New York again on May 19-1943 in Convoy HX 240, arriving Liverpool on June 4. According to the Commodore's notes, Skandinavia was among several ships that were detached from the main convoy at 08:00(B) on June 1, in 56 53N 23 10W, and sent ahead under escort as a fast section. From Liverpool, she proceeded to her destination Dingle on June 6, and on June 10, she headed back across the Atlantic with Convoy ON 188*, which arrived New York on the 26th and also had Abraham Lincoln (Commodore Vessel), Bajamar, Bañaderos, Belinda, Duala, Evita, G. C. Brøvig, Gylfe, Kaia Knudsen, Kaldfonn, Montevideo, Mosdale, Strinda, Thorhild, Vav and Velma in its ranks. Already on June 30 she was ready to head back to the U.K. with Convoy HX 246, bound for Swansea with a cargo of gasoline and kerosene, station 104, arriving Swansea, via Belfast Lough, on July 14. Acanthus, Rose and Potentilla are named among the escorts. (As can be seen in the Voyage Record, A. Hague states that Skandinavia was detached with a fast section from this convoy on July 11, but this is not mentioned in the Commodore's notes for HX 246). Towards the end of that month, she's listed as bound for New York in station 83 of Convoy ON 194*, with Anna Odland, Belinda, Brimanger, Dagrun, Fernmoor, G. C. Brøvig, Germa, Heimvard, Kaia Knudsen, Lista, Morgenen, Noreg and Norheim, again with Acanthus, Potentilla and Rose among the escorts. This convoy left Liverpool on July 24 and arrived New York on Aug. 7; Skandinavia had started out from Milford Haven July 24 - see Page 4.
From the U.S., she subsequently made a voyage to Algiers with Convoy UGS 15, which left Hampton Roads on Aug. 16-1943 (Anna Knudsen, Frontenac, Noreg and Torfinn Jarl are also listed, but they were not all present from the U.S.). Skandinavia arrived Algiers on Sept. 4, later returning to the U.S. from there with Convoy GUS 15, which had originated in Alexandria on Sept. 9 and arrived Hampton Roads on Oct. 4; Skandinavia sailed from Algiers on Sept. 16 and arrived New York Oct. 4, according to the archive document. (Other Norwegian ships mentioned in this convoy are Brisk, Glarona, Marita, Pronto, South America and Thorshov, but they were not all bound for the U.S., as will be seen when following the link provided in the table above). A. Hague has also included her, together with Britamsea, in Convoy NG 391, leaving New York on Oct. 9, arriving Guantanamo on the 15th and (again with Britamsea) in Convoy GAT 93, with departure Guantanamo on Oct. 15, arrival Trinidad on the 20th; Skandinavia, however, was bound for Curacao, where she arrived Oct. 18, according to A. Hague. She left Curacao again the next day for Cristobal and Australia (Page 4).
In 1944 and 1945 she made independent voyages to places like Hobart, Los Angeles, Espiritu Santo, Curacao, Langemak Bay, Hollandia, Bora Bora, Puerto la Cruz, Philadelphia etc. etc. Page 4, Page 5 and Page 6 have information on the rest of her voyages (Page 6 shows voyages to Apr.-1946). It'll be noticed that she occasionally had long stays in port.
On May 5-1945 she helped rescue (6 of the?) survivors from the American Black Point, sunk by U-853 southeast of Point Judith, Rhode Island (the last American merchant ship to be sunk by a U-boat in WW II). 1 gunner and 11 crew out of 41 (46?) died. U-853 was sunk the following day with the loss of all hands (55). See details on both these incidents via the link to "Hyperwar" below. Skandinavia arrived New York the next day, and that's where VE Day was celebrated, before she continued to Puerto la Cruz on the 11th.
Sold in 1960 for breaking up in Norway.
Related external links:
Hyperwar - The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II, by Robert J. Cressman (scroll down to the relevant date with regard to the rescue of Black Point survivors).
More on the loss of Black Point - Uboat.net's account on the sinking. This site says that Skandinavia picked up 2 of the survivors.
Back to Skandinavia on the "Ships starting with S" page.