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M/S Norma
Updated Aug. 9-2010

To Norma on the "Ships starting with N" page.

Source: Scanned from a book about Akers mek. Verksted, 1931.

From Bjørn Milde's postcard collection.
Another picture is available on this external page (click in the small thumbnail to enlarge).

Manager: A/S J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi, Bergen
4487 gt, 2712 net 7835 tdwt

Delivered in Oct.-1930 from Akers mek. Verksted, Oslo (446) as Norma to A/S J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi, Bergen. 390.5' x 54.7' x 24.3', 2 x 6 cyl. 4 TEV B&W DM (Aker), 3000 bhp.

Operated on Den norske Syd-Amerika Linje services (owned by Det Bergenske Dampskibsselskab, A/S. J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi and Fred. Olsen & Co.).

Her voyages are listed on these original images from the Norwegian National Archives:
Page 1 | Page 2 | Page 3 | Page 4 | Page 5

Please compare the above voyages with Arnold Hague's Voyage Record below.

  Voyage Record
From Jan.-1940 to Sept.-1945:  

(Received from Don Kindell - His source: The late Arnold Hague's database).

Follow the convoy links provided for more information on each.

Errors may exist, and some voyages may be missing.

Departure From To Arrival Convoy Remarks
1940 Jan. 23 Oslo Cape Verdes Febr. 16 Independent
Febr. 16 Cape Verdes Rio Febr. 26 Independent
March 2 Rio Santos March 3 Independent
March 6 Santos Buenos Aires March 10 Independent
March 29 Buenos Aires Dakar Apr. 15 Independent
May 3 Dakar Gibraltar May 10 Independent
May 12 Gibraltar Falmouth May 19 HG 30F A. Hague says:
"Thence Downs, arrived May 22"
(see also Page 1).
May 23 Southend Humber* May 24 FN 178 *Hull
(Page 1).
Convoy available at FN convoys
(external link)
June 18* Hull Clyde June 21 Page 1 gives departure June 15
(Humber June 18).
June 27 Clyde OB 175 For Montreal.
Dispersed June 30.
Convoy available at OB 175
(external link)
See also narrative below.
June 30 Dispersed from OB 175 Halifax July 10 Independent
July 26 Halifax New York City July 29 Independent A. Hague says:
Possibly a previous passage Halifax/Montreal/Halifax
(though not included, Page 1)
Aug. 4 New York City Baltimore Aug. 5 Independent
Aug. 6 Baltimore Cristobal Aug. 14 Independent
Aug. 15 Balboa San Francisco Aug. 24 Independent
Aug. 24 San Francisco Los Angeles Aug. 26 Independent
Aug. 26 Los Angeles Yokohama Sept. 19 Independent
Sept. 26 Yokohama Singapore Oct. 15 Independent
Oct. 16 Singapore Colombo Oct. 22 Independent
Oct. 23 Colombo Cochin Nov. 6 Independent A. Hague says:
"Must be an intermediate call here"
(Page 1 indicates Quilon)
Nov. 6 Cochin Capetown Nov. 24 Independent
Nov. 25 Capetown Trinidad Dec. 14 Independent
Dec. 15 Trinidad Philadelphia Dec. 24 Independent
1941 Jan. 8 Philadelphia New York City Jan. 9 Independent
Jan. 16 New York City Hampton Roads Jan. 17 Independent
Jan. 18 Hampton Roads Rio Febr. 6 Independent
Febr. 9 Rio Capetown Febr. 22 Independent
Febr. 22 Capetown Aden March 13 Independent
March 17 Aden Suez March 25 BN 20 Convoy available at BN convoys
(external link)
Apr. 14 Suez Basra Apr. 27 Independent
May 14 Basra Capetown June 7 Independent
June 15 Capetown Trinidad July 5 Independent
July 6 Trinidad Hampton Roads July 13 Independent
July 16 Hampton Roads New York City July 17 Independent
Aug. 10 New York City Trinidad Aug. 18 Independent
Aug. 19 Trinidad Capetown Sept. 12 Independent
Sept. 12 Capetown Bombay Oct. 2 Independent
Oct. 16 Bombay Calcutta Oct. 24 Independent
Nov. 18 Calcutta Colombo Nov. 24 Independent
Nov. 28 Colombo Capetown Dec. 18 Independent
Dec. 31 Capetown Freetown Jan. 22-1942 Independent
1942 Jan. 27 Freetown Oban Febr. 17 SL 99 Convoy available at SL 99
(external link)
Febr. 18 Oban Methil Febr. 21 WN 247 Compare w/Page 2
(also, missing movements).
Convoy available at WN convoys
(external link)
March 27 Methil Oban March 29 EN 64 Convoy available at EN convoys
(external link)
Apr. 3 Oban OS 24 Detached Apr. 18.
Detachment date estimated.
Convoy available at OS 24
(external link)
Apr. 18 Detached from OS 24 Capetown May 3 Independent
May 19 Capetown Aden June 5 Independent
June 5 Aden Suez June 11 Independent Later arrived Port Said, June 13
(Page 2)
June 17 Port Said Alexandria June 18 Independent
June 23 Alexandria Beirut June 25 Independent
July 1 Beirut Port Said July 3 Independent On to Suez, July 9
(Page 2).
July 13 Suez Massawa July 18 Independent
Aug. 6 Massawa Aden Aug. 8 Independent
Aug. 16 Aden Capetown Sept. 2 Independent
Sept. 4 Capetown Takoradi Sept. 15 Independent
Oct. 6 Takoradi Freetown Oct. 13 TS 21 Convoy available via this page
(external link)
Oct. 14 Freetown St Thomas Oct. 31 Independent
Nov. 1 St Thomas San Juan, P.R. Nov. 1 Independent
Nov. 3 San Juan, P.R. Gitmo Independent
Nov. 8 Gitmo New York City Nov. 17 GN 18 Convoy available at GN convoys
(external link)
Dec. 26 New York City Gitmo Jan. 2-1943 NG 332 For Cristobal.
Convoy available at NG convoys
(external link)
1943 Jan. 3 Gitmo Cristobal Jan. 7 GZ 18 Convoy available at GZ convoys
(external link)
Jan. 9 Balboa Durban Febr. 16 Independent
Febr. 20 Durban DN 19 Dispersed Febr. 22.
Convoy available via this page
(external link)
Febr. 22 Dispersed from DN 19 Shatt-el-Arab Anchorage March 14 Independent
March 21 Shatt-el-Arab Anchorage Basra March 28 Independent Via Abu Flus
(Page 2).
Apr. 18 Basra Abadan Apr. 18 Independent
Apr. 20 Abadan Bandar Abbas Independent
Apr. 22 Bandar Abbas Bombay Apr. 28 PB 37 Stop at Bandar Abbas not mentioned, Page 3
Convoy available via link above
Apr. 29 Bombay Colombo May 3 Independent
May 4 Colombo Calcutta May 10 Independent
May 20 Calcutta Madras May 26 Independent
May 27 Madras Durban June 15 Independent
June 18 Durban Capetown June 22 DC 31 Convoy available via link above
June 25 Capetown CN 26 Dispersed June 27.
Convoy available via link above
June 27 Dispersed from CN 26 Freetown July 12 Independent
July 13 Freetown SL 133 6 Passengers.
Rendezvoused w/MKS 18, July 26.
Convoy available at SL 133
(external link)
July 26 SL 133 & MKS 18 joined up Loch Ewe Aug. 4 SL 133/MKS 18 6 Passengers.
Convoy available at SL 133/MKS 18
(external link)
Aug. 5 Loch Ewe Methil* Aug. 6 WN 463 6 Passengers.
*Arrived Dundee, Aug. 7
(Page 3).
Convoy available at WN convoys
(external link)
Aug. 21 Methil* Loch Ewe Aug. 23 EN 271 *From Dundee.
Convoy available at EN convoys
(external link)
Aug. 27 Loch Ewe New York City Sept. 9 ON 199 Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
Oct. 22 New York City Hampton Roads Oct. 23 Independent
Oct. 25 Hampton Roads Port Said Nov. 22 UGS 22 For Port Said.
Convoy available at UGS convoys
(external link)
On to Suez, Nov. 30
(Page 3).
Nov. 30 Suez Aden Dec. 5 Independent
Dec. 12 Aden AKD 9 Detached Dec. 20.
Convoy available via this page
(external link)
Dec. 20 Detached from AKD 9 Beira Dec. 25 Independent
Dec. 31 Beira Port Elizabeth Jan. 5-1944 Independent
1944 Jan. 8 Port Elizabeth Capetown Jan. 10 Independent
Jan. 13 Capetown Freetown Jan. 26 Independent
Febr. 1 Freetown SL 148 Rendezvoused w/MKS 39, Febr. 12.
Convoy available at SL 148
(external link)
Febr. 12 SL 148 & MKS 39 joined up Loch Ewe Febr. 23 SL 148/MKS 39 Convoy available at SL 148/MKS 39
(external link)
Febr. 23 Loch Ewe Methil Febr. 25 WN 548 Convoy available at WN convoys
(external link)
Febr. 25 Methil Southend Febr. 27 FS 1373 Convoy available at FS convoys
(external link)
See also Page 3
March 9 Southend Tilbury March 11 FN 1291 Mine damage, returned for docking
(see alo narrative below).
Convoy available at FN convoys
(external link)
Again, see also Page 3
May 14 Southend Methil May 16 FN 1357 Convoy available at link above
May 16 Methil Loch Ewe May 18 EN 384 Convoy available at EN convoys
(external link)
May 19 Loch Ewe New York City June 3 ON 237 Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
June 10 New York City Gitmo June 16 NG 440 Convoy available at NG convoys
(external link)
July 3 San Pedro De Macoris Gitmo July 5 Independent A. Hague says"
"Date of passage to San Pedro unknown".
Page 3 gives arrival Macoris June 20
July 5 Gitmo New York City July 11 Independent
July 17 New York City Liverpool Aug. 3 HX 300
Aug. 18 Liverpool New York City Sept. 2 ON 249 Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
Sept. 3 New York City Puerto Tarifa Sept. 9 NG 457 Convoy available at NG convoys
(external link)
Sept. 18 Puerto Tarifa Key West Sept. 19 Independent
Sept. 20 Key West New York City Sept. 25 KN 339 Convoy available at KN convoys
(external link)
Sept. 28 New York City Liverpool Oct. 14 HX 311
Oct. 25 Liverpool New York City Nov. 10 ON 262 For Sydney, C.B.*
Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
*Page 4 also indicates she was initially bound for Sydney, C.B., but it does not look like she went there.
Nov. 14 New York City Philadelphia Nov. 15 Independent
Nov. 22 Philadelphia Hampton Roads Nov. 23 Independent
Dec. 1 Hampton Roads Augusta Dec. 21 UGS 62 Convoy available at UGS convoys
(external link)
Dec. 25 Augusta Brindisi Dec. 26 Independent
1945 Jan. 22 Brindisi Algiers Jan. 26 Independent
Febr. 2 Algiers Oran Febr. 3 Independent
Febr. 6 Oran New York City Febr. 24 GUS 70 Convoy available at GUS convoys
(external link)
March 23 New York City Guayab March 27 Independent
Apr. 11 Puerto Tarifa New York City Apr. 16 Independent Previous passage dates unknown
Apr. 18 New York City Clyde May 3 HX 351 Convoy will be added.
See ships in HX convoys
May 16 Clyde Barrow May 18 Independent
June 3 Barrow Kirkwall June 5 Independent
June 6 Kirkwall Tromsø June 10 Independent
June 17 Tromsø Kirkwall June 21 Independent
June 21 Kirkwall Clyde June 23 Independent
June 27 Clyde Montevideo July 21 Independent
July 25 Montevideo Rosario July 27 Independent
July 30 Rosario Buenos Aires July 31 Independent
Aug. 5 Buenos Aires Cape Verdes Aug. 20 Independent
Aug. 21 Cape Verdes Kirkwall Sept. 2 Independent
Sept. 2 Kirkwall Stavanger Sept. 4 Independent See also Page 4 & Page 5

 Some Convoy Voyages: 
For information on voyages made in between those mentioned here, please see the documents received from the National Archives of Norway and A. Hague's Voyage Record above. Follow the convoy links provided for further details; several Norwegian ships took part.

As will be seen when going to Page 1 of the archive documents, Norma was en route from Buenos Aires for Oslo, Norway when war broke out there on Apr. 9-1940, but was diverted to Hull. She went to Dakar on Apr. 15, proceeding to Gibraltar on May 3, and on May 12 she headed to the U.K. in Convoy HGF 30, bound for Falmouth with general cargo, arriving there on May 19. The Norwegian Thorshavn is also included in this convoy. Norma left Falmouth again on May 21 and arrival Hull on the 24th.

According to a story found in "Krigsseileren" No. 1 for 1974, Norma also sailed in the convoy in which M/S Tudor was sunk in June-1940, namely Convoy HGF 34, along with Nina Borthen, John P. Pedersen and Kollskegg. However, as will be seen when following the link, Norma is not included in the convoy document; the only other Norwegian ship listed, in addition to those already mentioned, is Svein Jarl. Besides, when going back to the archive document, we see that Norma was still in the U.K. at that time.

Norma transported some of Norway's gold to the U.S.A. (my page about M/S Bomma has more information on this). She's listed in Convoy OB 175, originating in Liverpool on June 27-1940, dispersed June 30 - ref. external link provided in the Voyage Record. This may have been the voyage on which she transported the gold. Belita, Egda, Solstad, Sveve and Vestland are also listed in this convoy, as is Bra-Kar, which was also involved in the gold transport. Norma's destination is given as Montreal. From Page 1 we learn that she arrived Halifax on July 10 (having started out from Clyde June 27), later continuing to New York and Baltimore (she either did not go to Montreal, or the voyage might simply be missing from the record - as can be seen, A. Hague suggests that she may have made a voyage Halifax/Montreal/Halifax, before proceeding to New York). Her 1941 voyages also start on this document.

The external website that I've linked to at the end of this page has Norma (and the Norwegian Velma) in Convoy SL 72, which departed Freetown on Apr. 17-1941 and arrived Liverpool on May 13. However, I believe this is an error, as it does not agree with the information found on the archive document mentioned above, which says she sailed from Suez on Apr. 14 and arrived Busreh on the 27th, continuing from there to Table Bay on May 15. (It may be a mix-up with Norman Star, which Arnold Hague has included in this convoy; see link to his listing at the end of this page).

Skipping now to Jan.-1942, when A. Hague has included her, with a cargo of tea, iron and jute, in station 12 of Convoy SL 99, departing Freetown Jan. 27, arriving Liverpool Febr. 16; Norma arrived Oban on the 17th. Elg, Fana, San Andres and Vest (returned) are also named in this convoy. Together with Acasta and K. G. Meldahl, she's also listed in station 84 of Convoy OS 24, voyaging from Oban to Capetown with stores. This convoy departed Liverpool on Apr. 2 and had Freetown as its final destination, arriving there on the 22nd; Norma sailed from Oban Apr. 3 and arrived Table Bay (Capetown) May 3, having been detached from the convoy around Apr. 18, according to A. Hague. Her voyages in this period are shown on Page 2, convoy info for some of her subsequent voyages can be found in the table above. See also Page 3.

In July-1943, she's listed in Convoy SL 133/MKS 18, the SL section of which left Freetown on July 13, joined up with MKS 18 (from Gibraltar) on the 26th, the combined convoy arriving Liverpool on Aug. 5; Norma stopped at Loch Ewe the day before, continuing to Dundee the next day. Her voyage information is given as Calcutta/Madras/Capetown for Loch Ewe, general cargo and 6 passengers, station 33 - again, see Page 3. More details on the combined convoy are available via the external link provided in the table above; the Norwegian Cypria and Star are also listed (Star joining with MKS 18 from Gibraltar). Norma subsequently joined the westbound North Atlantic Convoy ON 199*, which originated in Liverpool on Aug. 26 and arrived New York Sept. 9 and also included Cypria, Haakon Hauan (returned), Høyanger, Kaldfonn, Kronprinsessen, Molda, Solsten, Spinanger and Stiklestad. It now looks like Norma remained in New York for several weeks - see Page 3, which also shows some of her 1944 voyages.

In Febr.-1944 we find her in Convoy SL 148/MKS 39, cargo of chrome ore, copper and general, bound for Loch Ewe, where she arrived Febr. 23. SL 148 had departed Freetown on Febr. 1, joined up with the MKS convoy* from Gibraltar on the 12th, and arrived Liverpool on Febr. 24 (Norma arrived Loch Ewe the day before, then proceeded to London). Again, follow the external links in the Voyage Record for more details, Alaska, Mathilda, Norbryn and San Andres are also listed.

Norma was commodore ship in a convoy that had reached the Thames Estuary on March 9-1944 when a mine detonated close to her (this would have been while in Convoy FN 1291, in which she's listed - external link, incomplete listing). She started taking in water, and was taken in tow to Gravesend the next day. According to Page 3, she had initially left Gravesend for New York on March 8. Departure Gravesend (probably following repairs?) is given as May 13, and about a week later she's listed, along with Brimanger (Commodore Vessel), Emma Bakke, Ferncourt, Glarona, Herbrand, Laurits Swenson (Vice Commodore), Maud, Mosli, Norefjord, Noreg, Pan Scandia, Skaraas and Velma, in the westbound Convoy ON 237*, originating in Liverpool May 19 (Norma sailed from Loch Ewe that day), arriving New York June 3.

Having made a voyage to Macoris and back to New York, she headed back to the U.K. on July 17 in the largest convoy ever to cross the Atlantic, namely Convoy HX 300. She was bound for Liverpool with a cargo of sugar, and later returned to New York with Convoy ON 249*, departing Liverpool Aug. 18, arriving New York Sept. 2. She served as the Vice Commodore Vessel for this convoy, and had again been in the company of several other Norwegian ships, namely Frontenac, Gylfe, Høyanger, Høegh Hood, Kaia Knudsen, Laurits Swenson, Lista, Maud, Minerva, Norden, Skaraas, Skiensfjord, Torborg and Velma. On Sept. 28, she joined Convoy HX 311, again bound for Liverpool with sugar, and together with Anna Knudsen, Dalfonn, Fosna, Skotaas, Somerville and Spinanger, she returned across the ocean with Convoy ON 262*, which left Southend on Oct. 24 and arrived New York Nov. 10. A few days later, she proceeded to Philadelphia, later to Hampton Roads, and from there she now made a voyage to Augusta - A. Hague's Voyage Record and Page 4 have info on her subsequent voyages.

Arnold Hague has also included her, along with Egda, Laurits Swenson (Commodore Vessel), Skaraas and Villanger, in Convoy HX 351*, departing New York on Apr. 18-1945, arriving Liverpool May 3; Norma stopped at Clyde that day. As will be seen when going back to Page 4 of the archive documents, she got to go home to Norway already in June-1945, making another voyage home that fall, and again in Dec.-1945, as well as in Febr.-1946 (see Page 5).

* The ON convoys will be added to individual pages in my Convoys section in due course, along with further details on each. In the meantime, the ships sailing in them (and escorts) are named in the section listing ships in all ON convoys. The MKS convoys will also be added; see the section listing ships in all MKS convoys. Note also that the entire HX series will eventually be updated and completed, including the already existing convoys (some have already been updated), but for now, see ships in all HX convoys.

More details on the other Norwegian ships mentioned here can be found via the alphabet index below, or go to the Master Ship Index.


Renamed Norma County in 1959. Sold in 1960 to Kieler Howaldtswerke A/G, Kiel, converted to barge and used for storage and as accomodation vessel. Sold for breaking up in 1969 to Eckhardt & Co. GmbH, Hamburg, sold again to Spanish breakers. Arrived Santander in tow on Apr. 16 that same year.

Related external link:
SL convoys - As can be seen, Norma is listed among the ships in Convoy SL 72, but as mentioned above this was probably not Norma. Here is A. Hague's listing for SL 72, where Norman Star, not Norma, is listed.

Back to Norma on the "Ships starting with N" page.

Other ships by this name: Mowinkels later had another ship by this name, 5854 gt, launched at Helsingör on Febr. 28-1963, delivered as Norma on June 28 that same year. Purchased by Wilh. Wilhelmsen in March-1980 and renamed Tijuca (III). Sold to Uruguay in Dec.-1980, renamed Lucero del Mar. Broken up in 1987. Johan Chr. Gjertsen, Bergen, had also had a ship named Norma back in the 1880's, built in 1872 (originally Swedish), 285 gt, purchased by Johan Chr. Gjertsen, Bergen in Aug.-1879. Ran aground off Montrose, Scotland on March 9-1881. Another Norma was originally delivered as Swedish Bohus in 1874, purchased by Johan Chr. Gjertsen, Bergen in Dec.-1881 and renamed Norma. This ship disappeared at the end of 1882.

The text on this page was compiled with the help of: "Nortraships flåte", J. R. Hegland, "The World's Merchant Fleets 1939", R. W. Jordan, "Krigsseileren", Issue No. 1 for 1974, and misc. (ref. My sources).


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