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M/S Jamaica
Updated Nov. 14-2011

To Jamaica on the "Ships starting with J" page.

Survivors & Casualties

This shows the ship as Giuba.
Source: Sverre Johansen, Norway.
Another picture is available on this external page (click in it to make it larger).

Owner: Skibs-A/S Rose
Manager: Anders Jahre, Sandefjord
3015 gt, 1756 net.
Call Sign: LTGE

Built by Burmeister & Wain's Maskin & Skibsbyggeri A/S, Copenhagen in 1936. Previous name: Giuba until 1938.

Captain: Arnfinn Bergan.

Related items on this website:
A message in my Guestbook from Dr. Axel Niestlé. This is very interesting because it indicates, based on U 221's war diary, that one of Jamaica's crew members was kept aboard the U-boat for several days, until he jumped overboard on March 21. I have not seen this mentioned elsewhere. Norwegian sources say the Norwegian 3rd engineer was taken aboard the boat and questioned, but was allowed back in the lifeboat again after about 10-15 minutes. If anyone has information that can shed some light on this, please contact me at the address provided at the bottom of this page.
A guestbook message from the grandson of one of the survivors, Olaf Olsen, who lives in Liverpool (2004).

Her voyages are listed on these original images from the Norwegian National Archives:
Page 1 | Page 2

Please compare the above voyages with Arnold Hague's Voyage Record below.

Voyage Record
From Apr.-1940 to March-1943:

(Received from Don Kindell - His source: The late Arnold Hague's database).

Follow the convoy links provided for more information on each.

Departure From To Arrival Convoy Remarks
1940 Apr. 23 Gibraltar Beirut Apr. 30 Independent A. Hague says:
Previously traded Europe/South America
(see also Page 1)
May 1 Beirut Port Said May 2 Independent
May 4 Suez Port Sudan May 6 Independent
May 9 Port Sudan Aden May 11 Independent
May 11 Aden Albany May 28 Independent
May 30 Albany Fremantle Independent Page 1 gives arrival May 31.
June 4 Fremantle Capetown June 22 Independent
June 25 Capetown Freetown July 6 Independent
July 11 Freetown SL 39F Rendezvoused w/SL 39, July 19.
Convoy available at SL 39F
(external link)
July 19 SL 39F & SL 39 joined up Liverpool July 28 SL 39 Convoy available at SL 39
(external link)
Aug. 13 Liverpool OB 197 Dispersed Aug. 16.
Convoy available at OB 197
(external link)
Aug. 16 Dispersed from OB 197 Pernambuco Aug. 28 Independent
Sept. 13 Pernambuco Kingston Sept. 22 Independent See also Page 1
Oct. 12 Kingston Independent Mined Oct. 29
Oct. 29 Bristol Channel Avonmouth Oct. 30 In tow After mine damage.
Nov. 24 Avonmouth Newport Nov. 24 Independent
1941 Nov. 22 Newport Barry Independent
Nov. 23 Barry New York City Dec. 6 Independent
Dec. 18 New York City Liverpool Dec. 29 Independent
1942 Jan. 10 Liverpool New York City Jan. 23 Independent
Jan. 31 New York City Liverpool Febr. 11 Independent
Febr. 25 Liverpool New York City March 9 Independent
March 18 New York City Liverpool March 30 Independent
Apr. 10 Liverpool New York City Apr. 21 Independent
Apr. 28 New York City Liverpool May 10 Independent
May 19 Liverpool New York City May 28 Independent
June 5 New York City Liverpool June 16 Independent A. Hague says:
Fire onboard after arrival, burnt out
1943 March 4 Liverpool Independent Sunk - See "Final Fate" below


According to Page 1 of the archive documents, Jamaica was on her way from Victoria (Braz) to Gibraltar when war broke out in Norway on Apr. 9-1940. This voyage had started out in Rio de Janeiro on March 27 and she was bound for Port Sudan, where she later arrived (via Beirut, Port Said and Suez) on May 6.

Later that year, she's listed in Convoy SL 39F, departing Freetown on July 11. This convoy joined up with SL 39 on July 19. She arrived Liverpool on July 28 and the following month we find her in Convoy OB 197, which left Liverpool on Aug. 13 and dispersed Aug. 16, Jamaica arriving Pernambuco on Aug. 28. - ref. external links provided within the table above; Erica, Grey County, Inga I, Nova, Sandar and Varangberg are also listed in the OB convoy.

On Oct. 29-1940, she was damaged by a mine off Mackenzie Buoy, but managed to get to Avonmouth the next day (A. Hague says she arrived in tow). According to Page 1, she later headed to Newport, and it looks like repairs must have taken a long time: departure Newport is given as Nov. 22-1941, when she headed to New York.

She also spent a long time in Liverpool the following year. A. Hague says she had a fire on board after arrival there from New York on June 16-1942, but I have no further details on this. The archive document mentioned above gives departure Liverpool as March 4-1943, when she embarked on her last voyage.

 Final Fate - 1943: 

As mentioned above, Jamaica left Liverpool on March 4-1943, bound for New York alone in ballast, but didn't make it to her destination. In the morning of March 7, she was torpedoed in the starboard side by U-221 (Trojer) and sunk in approx. 52N 27W* (see also Page 2). The torpedo was believed to have detonated in the refrigerated hold amidships, because an intense smell of ammonia was noted after the explosion. She broke in two and sank in 2 minutes. 4 lifeboats were launched, though 2 were damaged and could not be used. As the ship sank the motor lifeboat was sucked down and came up capsized, but was righted and bailed.

* The position given above is from Norwegian sources. J. Rohwer gives the position as 48N 23 30W.

 Summary of statements given at the Maritime Hearings: 
The hearings were held in London on May 24 with the 2nd engineer, the 3rd engineer, Able Seaman B. Larsen, Able Seaman Henriksen, and Mechanic ("Motorman") Hauge appearing.

Able seaman Bjarne Larsen explained that he had been in the messroom aft when the torpedo hit and went straight to the boat deck where he and Mechanic Fosseli, Able Seaman Dale and Mechanic Strandskog launched the motorboat from the port side. Dale remained on the boat deck, while the others in the boat were sucked under when the ship sank. One of the British Radio Operators had also attempted to get in this boat, but did not succeed (1st Radio Operator Ewart Francis Wilkinson). Larsen says he had heard the 2 cooks crying for help in the galley, and since both doors were open, he assumed they had been injured and, therefore, unable to get themselves out. When Larsen came to the surface again he saw the capsized motorboat nearby, then swam towards it and was able to climb onto it.

Mechanic Hauge, who was in his aft cabin at the time of the explosion, entered the starboard lifeboat, but after the U-boat had "rammed it on purpose" (see *) he jumped overboard and swam towards the capsized motorboat. He states that the U-boat also attempted to ram this boat which had several people on it, but fortunately a large wave came just then and the motorboat was swung away at the last moment and was not hit by the U-boat.

2nd Engineer Karl Engebreth Møller says he was in his cabin amidships when the torpedo hit, but the explosion threw him up on deck. No alarm had been sounded beforehand, leading him to believe that those on duty on deck had not seen the U-boat before the torpedo struck. He went to the starboard lifeboat which was launched with the help of the other 4 men present, then rowed away from Jamaica to keep from being sucked under. He had noticed that most of the crew had gone to the port side of the ship and in his opinion this was to avoid the gas eminating from the refrigerated hold.

He says that after Jamaica had gone down, the U-boat came up and asked for the captain and chief engineer. After having been told that they had probably gone down with the ship, because they had not been seen, the U-boat ran straight into the side of the lifeboat, on purpose (*), and damaged it even further, so that it became useless, but they succeeded in rowing it over to "half a raft" and tied the boat to it. The gig came over towing the motorboat, which was put alongside the raft and bailed, whereupon all the supplies in the starboard boat were transferred to the motorboat. The gig then rowed over to the wreckage of the port lifeboat in which there were 2 men and a search was made for possible survivors in the water but none were to be seen.

All supplies from the port boat were transferred to the gig, which now had 4 people. 13 were in the motorboat. The 4 in the gig did not want to stay with the other boat, so proceeded in a southerly direction. In the gig at that time were Steward Jens A. Menzoni, Able Seaman Eilef Daniel Henriksen, Gunner Thorbjørn Olsen, and Olaf Eliassen. The others readied the motorboat, then sailed in the same direction as the gig, leaving the raft and starboard boat behind. (Due to it having been damaged it was impossible to use the motor, therefore, sail had to be used). There were 2 compasses in the boat and course was set for southeast, later east. The 2 fresh water tanks in the boat were leaking and the contents were mixed with seawater, but they used the water from 4 water kegs, presumably taken from the damaged boat.

One of the able seamen, Einar Larsen, who had been at the helm when the torpedo hit had a badly injured thigh. He was covered up and taken care of as best they could. Before noon on the 9th they were spotted by a Flying Fortress aircraft, which circled around the boat a few times and threw down a box containing First Aid articles, as well as misc. other items that they were unable to pick up. After a while their feet swelled up in spite of massaging them and many were in a lot of pain.

At around 7:30 in the morning of the 18th, they were picked up by the corvette HMS Borage (K-120). There was no doctor on board, but they were treated by the ship's deacon and given the best of care. Borage then altered course to meet up with another corvette which had a doctor on board, and 3 of Jamaica's men whose injuries were the most severe were transferred there in order to be taken to Gibraltar as quickly as possible. Borage, meanwhile, met up with, and joined a convoy en route to the U.K., and the remaining survivors arrived Plymouth on March 26, then continued to London the next day.

A gunner also reported that the U-boat purposely rammed the lifeboat. He says that most of its occupants were able to cling to the resulting debris, but 3rd Engineer Odd A. Ernstsen had fallen overboard and was picked up by the U-boat, where his lifevest was "emptied" before he was "thrown back into the sea again"**. The gunner adds that the U-boat then ran around among the people swimming in the water, until it gradually grew quiet, and they were convinced that some of them had been killed. All the witnesses say they heard the cries and whistles from survivors swimming in the water nearby (they could not be seen, only heard, due to the tall seas), but after the U-boat had gone in that direction it all went quiet.

* I don't know whether Trojer was the kind of man capable of such behaviour, but naturally, this report was utilized in British propaganda as "proof" of the fact that German U-boats practised a kind of warfare that must be termed criminal. (One of the witnesses at the hearings had heard that it was common practice of the U-boats to cruise around among survivors in the water, killing them with their propellers. There were probably all kinds of rumours going around about U-boats in those days, putting fear and hatred into the seamen). The most likely explanation is probably that the U-boat had difficulties maneuvering in between the debris, boats and swimming people. One witness, Able Seaman Henriksen, admits when questioned that it was possible that his shipmates had simply drifted further away after a while and, therefore, could not be heard anymore. Also, some of them did not have their lifevests on. Additionally, in Odd Ernstsen's own statement the term "thrown into the sea" was altered to "the U-boat's captain said he could jump into the sea again", which he did, then swam over to the starboard lifeboat. He further stated that he was never inside the U-boat, only in the conning tower. He had seen nothing that could identify the boat, but had heard from others that there was a black cat painted on it.

** This Guestbook message, posted by Dr. Axel Niestlé, states the following:
"While tracking down information on merchant sailors taken POW by German U-boats during WWII I came across the sinking of the Jamaica on 7 March 1943. According to the war diary of U 221, the 4th Engineer was picked up from the sea and taken prisoner after the ship had gone down. No other information about the identity of the prisoner is given. However, the war diary also notes that said prisoner jumped overboard on 21 March 1943 at 2215 while in square BD 3271. The entry on this incident reads as follows (my translation):
2215 General quarters for excercise. The captured Englishman [sic] has the believe that we are actually about to attack a destroyer and jumps into the water after I had him brought up on the bridge to get some fresh air. He had already expressed this intention previously several times.
2231 Crash-diving for excercise
2248 Surfaced."

Dr. Niestlé adds:

"From your information on the sinking I am aware that the 4th Engineer Officer was obviously rescued together with the other survivors. However, if the person taken aboard U 221 was in fact a British national, he must have been one of the two radio operator mentioned by you which were recorded as lost. I really would like to identify this man positively. Therefore I wonder if you could give me any further advice on this matter."

Again, if anyone has information that can shed some light on this, please contact me at the address provided at the bottom of this page.

The gunner's report mentioned above further states that Gunner Thorbjørn O. Olsen, Gunner Larsen and Gunner Eliassen were in the aft messroom when the torpedo hit, while Gunner Gunnar Hellerud was on lookout duty on the bridge. Gunner Olaf Olsen was in bed (see also this guestbook message) and Gunner Anton Johansen was also in his cabin. Th. O. Olsen jumped into the sea and was able to get into a damaged lifeboat, while Larsen, O. Olsen and Eliassen launched the gig and managed to get into it.

At the time the other 13 survivors were landed in Plymouth, the 4 men who had left the scene of the sinking in Jamaica's gig were still missing, but on March 29 word came that they had reached Isle of Barra where they received medical treatment before being sent to London Apr. 6.

A total of 21 had died, including Captain Bergan. 1st Mate Samson Myrdal was believed to have been in the motorboat which initially went down with the suction when Jamaica sank, while 3rd Mate Charles Berg was on duty on the bridge when the torpedo hit. The latter had been seen floating in the water with half his face gone. Those who had been on duty in the engine room, namely 4th Engineer (assistant) Arne Nilsen, Mechanic Erik Gulbrandsen and Electrician Thorleif Sedolfsen were assumed killed instantly during the explosion. 1st Engineer Rolf Larsen had not been feeling well that morning and had probably gone to bed before the attack occurred. Gunner Thor Hauff Thorsen, who had been on gun duty, had placed himself on the raft on No. 3 hatch, but the raft got jammed under the beams and he died.

I've found some information in Issue No. 4 for 1982 of the Norwegian magazine "Krigsseileren" with regard to the 16 year old British Alan Ratcliff from Liverpool who survived the attack on Jamaica. He was among the 13 in the lifeboat, as was the 19 year old Mechanic Arne Fosseli. During a visit to Liverpool in 1977 Arne Fosseli came across some old newspapers containing Alan Ratcliff's story and through a subsequent notice in a Liverpool newspaper he was able to find him and the 2 were reunited in 1980. They were in the cabin of another English boy when the torpedo hit, causing the door to jam but they were able to get out through the porthole. Alan was in the lifeboat that was "rammed" by the U-boat and was caught on the boat for a while before being thrown off, and was subsequently picked up by a lifeboat, but his legs had been severely injured during the ordeal. In the course of the 11 days in the lifeboat his legs got progressively worse and gangrene set in. He was among the ones who were transferred from Borage to another corvette and taken to a military hospital in Gibraltar where his legs had to be amputated. He was later sent to England where he got artificial legs. There's a picture of him at the hospital, and another one of him and Arne Fosseli at their reunion. A. Fosseli died in 1996 - I've also received an E-mail from Alan Ratcliff's son telling me that he died in 1987 at the age of 61. He says that David Roberts was the other boy who got out with them; probably identical to the William D. Roberts in my crew list below.

For info, U-221 was also responsible for the attack on Fagersten, Senta and Sandanger - follow the links for dates and more details.

Crew List:
Thorbjørn Olsen's other ships are listed on this external page. He also survived the attack on Spinanger.

Able Seaman
Einar Larsen
Able Seaman
Bjarne Johan Larsen
Able Seaman
Eilef Daniel Henriksen
Able Seaman
Olaf Eliassen
Able Seaman/Gunner
Olaf Olsen
Able Seaman/Gunner
Chler Øarsem*
Able Seaman/Gunner
Thorbjørn Olsen
2nd engineer
Karl E. Møller
3rd Engineer
Odd A. Ernstsen
Refrigerator Engineer
Henry Mikalsen
Arne Østheim Fosseli
Olav Olsen
Johan Hauge
Øivind Nilsen
Jens A. Menzoni
Saloon Boy
William D. Roberts
Saloon Boy
Allan Ratcliff

* I find this a very strange name and wonder if it's misspelt.

Arnfinn Bergan

1st Mate
Samson Myrdal

2nd Mate
Harald Bærulfsen

3rd Mate
Charles Berg

Radio Operator
Ewart Francis Wilkinson*

Radio Operator
Alfred Riley*

Radio Operator
Erling Sivertsen

Aksel Andersen

Able Seaman
Thorvald Dale

Able Seaman/Gunner
Thor Hauff Thorsen

Able Seaman/Gunner
Anton Johansen

Able Seaman/Gunner
Gunnar Hellerud

1st Engineer
Rolf Larsen

Arne Nilsen

Thorleif Sedolfsen

Ingvald Storebø

Harald Strandskog

Erik Gulbrandsen

Rolf Rynning

Christian Solberg

2nd Cook
Karsten Jensen

* The British casualties can be found by entering their names in the relevant search field on The Commonwealth War Graves Comm. website (external link) - here is A. Riley and here is E. F. Wilkinson - date of death is given as March 7-1943 for both. They are commemorated on Panel 58 at Tower Hill Memorial.

Related external links:
Stavern Memorial commemorations - 20 Norwegians are commemorated at this Memorial for Seamen in Stavern, Norway (some names are spelt a little differently). When adding the 2 British seamen named above the total comes to 22 instead of the 21 reported elsewhere. One explanation might be that one of the seamen commemorated at this memorial, Arne Sigvald Johansen, may have died in an earlier incident. Erling Johan Lammenes is idententical to Erling Sivertsen in my crew list.

Operations Information for U-221

U-221 | Hans-Hartwig Trojer

B-17 (Flying Fortress) - from Skylighters.

Back to Jamaica on the "Ships starting with J" page.

Norway had also lost a ship by this name during WW I - built 1909 for Adolph Halvorsen, later managed by Westfal-Larsen, Bergen. Lost off Oporto on Jan. 1-1915, 15 died, 1 survived.

The text on this page was compiled with the help of: "Nortraships flåte", J. R. Hegland, "Sjøforklaringer fra 2. verdenskrig", Norwegian Maritime Museum, Volume I, "Krigsseileren" Issue No. 4 for 1982, and misc. others for cross checking info, incl. "Axis Submarine Successes of World War Two", Jürgen Rohwer and "The World's Merchant Fleets 1939", Roger W. Jordan.


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